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March 2nd 2014 Vegetable IPM Updates
Insect Management
Weed Science
Insect Management:

Sulfoxaflor Now Available for Use in Winter Vegetables

Aphids are beginning to show up on cole crops and it won’t be long until they begin to colonize leafy vegetables. In late October of this year, the USEPA reestablished the registration for products containing sulfoxaflor (IsoclastTM Active), namely Sequoia® for season long use on Leafy Vegetables (Group 4) and Brassica(Cole) Leafy Vegetables (Group 5). This reestablished label refers to most, if not all, winter vegetables produced in the desert. The label for these crops is essentially the same as it was before the cancellation but with a couple of restrictions. The new registration requires that a 12-foot in-field, downwind buffer must be maintained from blooming vegetation during application. It also restricts tank-mixing with products containing certain active ingredients. The list of prohibited tank-mix partners can also be accessed at http:/// This is good news for PCAs and growers as we move into the winter and spring produce season. In addition to Sequoia, PCAs can achieve good residual aphid control using Movento as a foliar spray and should be rotated with Sequoia and other insecticides when aphid pressure is heavy. Imidacloprid soil applications (at planting) also provide residual control, but will often require additional foliar sprays near harvest. Foliar alternatives such as Assail, Sivanto, and Beleaf are good aphicides also, but do not provide the same level of residual control as either Sequoia or Movento. Under heavy aphid pressure, PCAs should be prepared to use several of these alternatives, rather than rely on only one product. Sequoia also provides good control of Lygus bugs on crops such as celery and lettuce, and should be rotated with other products such as Beleaf, Vydate and Acephate. For more information on insecticide alternatives for aphid management see our 2016 Aphid Control Chart.


NAME THAT PEST CONTEST VIPM_Update_Vol_7_Num_24_002.png
Name this IPM tool used in the 1980s. - Huber Oil Trap for pink bollworm monitoring and mass trapping.

Remember, When in Doubt . . . . . “SCOUT”

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Influence of the Environment on Plant Disease Development

Three ingredients are required for a plant disease to develop: a susceptible host plant, a pathogen capable of infecting that plant, and a favorable environment. Temperature and moisture are aspects of the environment that critically affect the development and severity of diseases caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens. A plant disease caused by these types of pathogens will not occur if temperature and/or moisture levels prohibit the pathogen from interacting with the host plant to cause disease. This explains why some diseases only appear during a particular time period during the growing season of a particular crop. For example, Fusarium wilt on lettuce in the desert is found primarily during the fall, but not during the winter months. Why? Because soil temperatures in the fall, but not winter months, favor the growth of the pathogen and disease development. Another example; downy mildew on winter vegetables such as lettuce, cruciferous crops, onions, and spinach is usually a concern in late autumn, winter, and early spring, but only when periods of leaf wetness caused by rainfall and dew are present. For this disease, periods of high humidity and leaf wetness are essential for the downy mildew pathogens to grow, produce spores, infect plants and cause disease. The generally dry conditions prevalent in the desert benefit growers by inhibiting foliar diseases caused by bacteria and many fungi. These organisms can flourish in regions receiving abundant rainfall. Growers can’t control the weather; however, they do have control over irrigation practices, which in some cases can influence the severity of vegetable crop diseases. For instance, the severity of Sclerotinia drop of lettuce can be increased by over-irrigation, especially if this results in prolonged wetting of the bed top. Also, during periods of rainfall and high humidity, sprinkler irrigation can extend the duration of high foliar moisture and thus increase the severity of downy mildew.

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Weed Science:

PPO Inhibitor Herbicides

Some of the newest herbicides that have been registered here are those that are classified as PPO inhibitors. They fit well in this area because they generally have little soil residual activity that would cause problems to rotational crops and they work best under bright sunlight. Goal is one of the earliest registered of these (1980) but has only been used widely over the about the last 10 years. This is the only one of these that has problems with “lift off” or codistillation with water. The others include Aim or Shark, Chateau, Sharpen or Treevix, ET, and Sparten. They work as contact herbicides and do not move through the plant. Specifically, they inhibit protophorphyrin oxidase (PPO) which is an enzyme needed in the production of chloropyll. This causes a chain reaction that ultimately destroys cell memebranes. Within 12 hours the plant starts to show chlorosis. If the plant is small and the coverage is good, it will turn brown and die in 3 to 5 days. Activity is delayed if there is not bright sunlight. Sometimes activity is enhanced on the side of the bed that is exposed to the most sunlight. Contact herbicides are not usually thought of as having preemergence activity but when used at higher rates, Goal and Chateau do. As the hypocotyl emerges from the soil it contacts the herbicide and dies. For this reason it is important that the soil not be disturbed after application.

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Areawide Insect Trapping Network:

November 23, 2016

Our area-wide trapping network is up and running. The project is designed to measure the activity and movement of adult populations of a number of key pests. The project is being funded by the Arizona Iceberg Lettuce Research Council, and will hopefully provide an indication of when pest activity (e.g., corn earworm moth flights) is increasing based on pheromone/sticky trap captures. The data is not intended to indicate field infestations, as trap data is largely a reflection of adult movement. If nothing else, the data may make PCAs aware of increased pest activity in some areas and encourage intensified scouting in susceptible produce fields. The pests being monitored include: corn earworm, tobacco budworm, beet armyworm, cabbage looper using pheromone traps; aphids, thrips and whiteflies using yellow sticky traps. A total of 15 trapping locations have been established. Traps will be checked weekly and data will be made available in the bi-weekly Vegetable IPM updates. If a PCA or grower is interested in weekly counts, those can be made available by contacting us.
Results of pheromone and sticky trap catches can be viewed here.

Corn earworm: Moth activity remains at seasonal low levels in all trap locations.

Beet armyworm: Armyworm moths remain active but numbers continue to trend downward in all locations over the past 2 weeks.

Cabbage looper: Similarly, cabbage looper moths are trending downward in all trap locations over the past two weeks. Quite a bit lower than this time last year.

Whitefly: Adults captured on sticky traps remain high in some locations, particularly in the Wellton and Tacna.

Thrips: Thrips movement remains unseasonably high and increased in the Roll location.

Aphids: Aphid flights have crashed over all trap locations.

Leafminers: Adult activity remained unusually high in some trap locations, and were particularly heavy in the Wellton area, and increasing in dome and Gila Valleys. Activity much greater this fall as opposed to previous years.
To contact John Palumbo go to:

LION ATTACK IN YUMA?? Yes, Ant Lion click here.

Real IPM

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The Vegetable IPM Updates Archive page provides links to updates from previous weeks.

The Vegetable IPM Video Archive page contains a collection of educational videos from current research work in vegetable crops by University of Arizona Researchers.


For questions or comments on any of the topics please contact Marco Pena at the Yuma Agricultural Center.
College of Agriculture, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

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