Small grain varieties are evaluated each year by University of Arizona personnel and industry cooperators. The purpose of these tests is to characterize varieties in terms of yield and other attributes. Variety performance varies greatly from year to year and several site-years are necessary to adequately characterize the yield potential of a variety. The results contained in this report will be combined with results from previous years in a summary available from Arizona Cooperative Extension .
Small grain varieties are continually tested as part of the on-going effort to assess variety productivity and characteristics. The purpose of these tests were to characterize new barley, durum, and wheat varieties in terms of yield potential, relative maturity, quality, and other characteristics. Small plot variety trials do not substitute for localized on-farm testing of new varieties. Varieties are known to differ in their response to specific management regimes and weather conditions.
Barley, durum and wheat varieties were evaluated in the Yuma Valley by Western Plant Breeders. The seed was planted with a cone planter in seven rows spaced 7 inches apart and about 20 ft long. The seeding rate was approximately 100 lbs/acre for wheat and durum varieties and 85 lbs/acre for barley varieties. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with 4 replications and a variable number of entries depending on the crop. Growing conditions at each site are listed below. The following data was collected, but not all data was collected at every location; grain yield, grain protein, test weight, kernel weight, HVAC, plant height, lodging, heading, anthesis, and physiological maturity. Grain was harvested with a small plot combine and yields are expressed on an “as is” moisture basis. Kernel weight and HVAC were determined from 10 g of hand picked seed. Grain protein was determined with a NIR whole grain analyzer. Heading, anthesis, and physiological maturity dates are noted when 50% of the plants reach these stages. Physiological maturity is defined when the glumes turn brown. Abbreviations for the sources of varieties are: APB=Arizona Plant Breeders, UA=University of Arizona, UC=University of California, WPB=Western Plant Breeders, WWW=World Wide Wheat.
Yuma Valley (Western Plant Breeders) - Barley - A trial was planted on a clay loam soil that was previously in cantaloupes and irrigated up on December 6, 1999. A total of six irrigations were applied including the irrigation to germinate the seed. Nitrogen application included 70 lbs N/acre preplant and 180 lbs N/acre in the first three irrigations as ammonia for a total of 250 lbs N/acre. The plots were harvested on May 18, 2000.
Yuma Valley (Western Plant Breeders) - Durum and Wheat - Seed was planted on a sandy loam soil following lettuce on January 15, 2000 and an irrigation to germinate the seed was applied the same day. No preplant fertilizer was applied. A total of 262 lbs N/acre as UAN-32 was applied over the growing season. Seven irrigations were required. Plots were harvested June 1, 2000.
The 1999-00 wheat growing season can be characterized as warm and dry compared to normal. March was the only month where appreciable rainfall was recorded and most of this occurred in one storm in the early part of the month. The growing season had above average temperature except for December. Several locations and years are needed to accurately assess variety performance. Contact your local Cooperative Extension for a summary of small grains trials in Arizona. The results of this trial are most useful when combined with data from other years.
*Grain yield: LSD (5%) = 948, 1279, and 868 lbs/acre and cv = 6.7, 13.5, and 8.8% for barley, durum, and wheat, respectively.
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, James A. Christenson, Director Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Arizona.
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Information provided by:
Michael Ottman, firstname.lastname@example.org Agronomy Specialist
University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
Material written January 2001.
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