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  MG Manual Reference
Ch. 3, pp. 15 - 16
[ Basic Entomology: introduction | anatomy | development | classification | specific groups; coleoptera, lepidoptera, diptera, hymenoptera, hemiptera, homoptera, orthoptera, isoptera, dermaptera, thysanoptera, thysanura, collembola, other insects, relatives, other classes ]

Figure 11. The developmental stages of the grasshopper

Grasshopper Eggs in Soil

Grasshopper Nymphs
Grasshopper Nymphs

Grasshopper Adult
Grasshopper Adult


a. Adults with two pairs of wings. The forewings are leathery with many netlike veins. The under wings are membranous and fan-shaped when expanded.
b. The adults are often 1 inch long or longer, with appendages at the end of the abdomen called cerci.
c. Orthoptera have simple metamorphosis, with wingless nymphs that resemble the adults.
d. Both adults and nymphs have chewing mouthparts and cause damage.
e. Hind legs of many species (with the exception of walking sticks and cockroaches) are enlarged for jumping.
Common orthopterans found in Arizona include the Indian house cricket. This introduced insect is known for its tendency to enter houses. The males produce a shrill chirping noise to attract females. The adults and nymphs are light tan with darker brown spots and bands.
The infamous sewer roach (American cockroach) is the topic of conversation each summer. These cockroaches build up to great numbers in the sewers and then enter homes through drains.
Figure 12. Different termite forms found in a single colony

Winged Reproductive
Winged Reproductive

Different Termites


a. These highly social insects have different forms or castes that perform different functions, such as workers, soldiers and queens.
b. Although they are sometimes called "white ants," they are not ants at all. They have thick waists and are white or light brown in color (ants have thin waists and are often black, red or yellow.)
c. Termites have thin straight antennae which look like a chain of beads. Ants have elbowed antennae.
d. Termites have simple metamorphosis, but the nymphs can become different forms.
e. They have chewing mouthparts to chew on wood and other plant materials.
The injurious termites are generally placed in two groups, the dry-wood and subterranean types. Both feed on wood and wood products. The dry-wood termites nest exclusively in wood; whereas the subterranean termites nest in soil and must maintain a connection with the soil in order to survive. Both can be found in large numbers in sound structures where they may do considerable damage if not detected and controlled.


a. Elongate insects which resemble certain types of beetles, except for the presence of a pair of forceps-like curved appendages on the rear of their abdomen. The forceps are used for defense and prey handling, and do not harm humans.
b. They have chewing mouthparts.
c. The adults have short, hardened outer wings and membranous inner wings.
d. Earwigs have simple metamorphosis and the nymphs resemble the adults.
e. Earwigs are nocturnal and hide during the day. They do not enter ears, although they were occasionally found in powdered wigs
The most common species is the European earwig. It is sometimes a pest of gardens, ornamentals, and small trees but it can also be beneficial because it sometimes preys upon other insects. In Arizona, they may enter houses, but normally they hide in dark, moist areas such as under potted plants.

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