Program Outcomes for Youth
Social Competencies


Name: Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale
Author: H. L. Barnes & D. H. Olson
Date: 1982
Instrument Description: This 20 item, 5-point Likert-type scale is composed of two subscales which measure degree of openness and extent of problems in family communication. This scale is often used in conjunction with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES) according to the Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems (Olson, Sprenkle, & Russell, 1979).
Where Available: Literature reference: Barnes, H. L., & Olson, D. H. (1982). Parent adolescent communication scale. Olson, D. H., et al. (eds.). Family inventories, (pp. 33-48). St Paul: Family Social Science, University of Minnesota.
Literature Reference: Barnes, H. L., & Olson, D. H. (1985). Parent-adolescent communication and the Circumplex model. Child Development, 56, 438-447.
Cost: Not available
Intended Audience: Adolescents and their primary caregivers
Subtests: 1) Open Family Communication Scale
2) Problems in Family Communication Scale
Psychometrics: Alpha reliabilities for each subscale are .87 and .78; test-retest reliabilities are .78 and 77.
Advantages/Disadvantages A highly utilized scale in the family communication literature.

Name: Interpersonal Communication Inventory
Author: M. J. Bienvenu, Sr.
Date: 1970
Instrument Description: This 50 item, 3-point Likert type self-inventory was developed to measure the process of communication as an element of social interaction. It is intended to identify not content, but patterns, characteristics, and styles of communication. Such areas as the ability to listen, to empathize, to understand, to deal with angry feelings, and to express oneself are explored.
Where Available: Literature reference
Literature Reference: Bienvenu, M. J. (1971). An interpersonal communication inventory. The Journal of Communication, 21, 381-388.
Cost: Not Available
Intended Audience: Individuals of high school age or older
Subtests: Not Available
Psychometrics: Face validity by a panel of sociologists, psychologists and specialists in the field of human relations. Evidence of discriminant validity.
Advantages/Disadvantages May be best suited as a counseling tool, as a supplement to an interview, or as a teaching tool.

Name: Defensive and Supportive Communication Interaction Coding System
Author: C. Barton; J. F. Alexander; & C. W. Turner
Date: 1988
Instrument Description: This coding system is designed to be used while observing family verbal and non-verbal behaviors. The system consists of eight subcategories, four defensive and four supportive.
Where Available: literature reference
Literature Reference: Waldron, H. B., Turner, C. W., Alexander, J. F., & Barton, C. (1993). Coding defensive and supportive communications: discriminant validity and subcategory convergence. Journal of Family Psychology, 7, 197-203
Cost: Not available
Intended Audience: Often used in families with juvenile delinquents.
Subtests: Four defensive subcategories: judgmental-dogmatism; control; indifference; superiority. Four supportive subcategories: genuine information giving and seeking; spontaneous problem solving; empathy; equality.
Psychometrics: Convergent and discriminant validity for subcategories. Interrater reliabilities kappa coefficients in analog setting from .76 to .96 (determined elsewhere). Current study, interrater agreement of 90%.
Advantages/Disadvantages Has been used frequently in the study of interactions in families with a juvenile delinquent. Lack of research examining the psychometric properties.

Name: Behavior Inventory
Author: D. Kirby & J. Alters
Date: 1984
Instrument Description: This inventory was designed for Mathtech to evaluate a sex education program. It was intended to measure frequency with which respondents actually use important skills in everyday life and the comfort respondents experience when using some of the skills. It is a 6-point Likert-type format.
Where Available: ETR Associates, P.O. Box 1830, Santa Cruz, CA 95062-1830
Literature Reference: Lock, S. E., & Vincent, M. L. (1995). Sexual decision making among rural adolescent females. Health Values, 19, 47-58.
Cost: $10.00
Intended Audience: Adolescents
Subtests: This measure contains an eight question communication skills subscale.
Psychometrics: Test-retest is .57; Cronbach=s alpha is .75 for communication subscale.
Advantages/Disadvantages Contains general communication skills items and items specific to communication about sexuality.

Name: Parent-Youth Communication Questionnaire
Author: L. Serna, J. B. Schumaker, J. A. Sherman, & J. B. Sheldon
Date: 1991
Instrument Description: This scale was designed to measure parent and youth perceptions of family communication and overall social interactions. 7-point Likert-type format.
Where Available: Loretta Serna, 1776 University Ave., University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822
Literature Reference: Serna, L. A., Schumaker, J. B., Sherman, J. A., & Sheldon, J. B. (1991). In home generalization of social interactions in families of adolescents with behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 733-746.
Cost: Not Available
Intended Audience: Adolescents and their families
Subtests: Not Available
Psychometrics: None noted.
Advantages/Disadvantages No psychometrics found.

Name: Life Skills Development Scale - Adolescent form
Author: C. A. Darden, E. J. Ginter, & G. M. Gazda
Date: 1996
Instrument Description: The 65-item revision of this scale is an assessment instrument that produces a general score of global efficacy, but also provides some specific information regarding the four identified component parts: interpersonal communication/human relations skills; problem-solving/decision-making skills; physical fitness/health maintenance skills; and identity development/purpose in life skills.
Where Available: C. A. Darden, Learning Disabilities Center, 343 Milledge Hall, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-5554.
Literature Reference: Darden, C. A., Ginter, E. J., & Gazda, G. M. (1996). Life-skills development scale - adolescent form: the theoretical and therapeutic relevance of life-skills. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 18, 142-163.
Cost: Not Available
Intended Audience: Adolescents, ages 13-18.
Subtests: This instrument contains a communication/human relations skills subscale - 15 items.
Psychometrics: Internal consistency is .94 for the total scale; ranged from .72 to .87 for the subscales. Interscale correlations were significant but in the low-to-moderate range.
Advantages/Disadvantages The intended purposes of this instrument are for research and to assist in intervention design, implementation, and evaluation in clinical and educational settings.

Name: Family Assessment Device (FAD)
Author: Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop
Date: 1983
Instrument Description: This instrument is based on the McMaster Model. It is a 60-item self-report instrument utilizing a 4-point Likert-type format. The FAD operationalizes six dimensions of family functioning: problem solving; communication; roles; affective responsiveness; affective involvement; and behavior control. It also contains a general functioning scale which can be used independently.
Where Available: Ivan W. Miller, Ph.D., Director of Research, Butler Hospital, 345 Blackstone Boulevard, Providence, RI 02906
Literature Reference: Sawin, K., & Harrigan, M. P. (1995) Woog, P. (ed.). Measures of Family Functioning for Research and Practice. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Cost: Not available
Intended Audience: Used with families.
Subtests: This instrument contains a communication subscale.
Psychometrics: Internal consistency: Alpha=s ranged from .57 to .86, .70 to .76 for communication scale. Test-retest at one-week interval: .72 for communication. Evidence of content, construct, concurrent, discriminant, and predictive validity.
Advantages/Disadvantages This is a well-established and highly utilized self-report instrument. The FAD has been used in clinical studies of families responding to adolescent suicide and other mental health issues. The FAD is based on a sound, theoretical model.

Name: Family Environment Scale (FES)
Author: R. Moos & B. Moos
Date: 1974
Instrument Description: This 90-item self-report instrument with a true/false format measures ten dimensions of family functioning. The FES assesses the social environment or climate of families from an interactionist framework. Three domains of family climate measured are: social relationship; personal growth; and family system maintenance.
Where Available: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc., 3803 E. Bayshore Road, Palo Alto, CA 94303
Literature Reference: Sawin, K., & Harrigan, M. P. (1995) Woog, P. (ed.). Measures of Family Functioning for Research and Practice. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Cost: Not available
Intended Audience: Used with families.
Subtests: Contains an expressiveness subscale. Other subscales include: cohesion; conflict; independence; achievement orientation; intellectual-cultural orientation; active recreational orientation; moral-religious emphasis; organization; and control.
Psychometrics: Internal consistency reliabilities range from .60 to .78. Test-retest reliabilities at eight weeks range from .73 to .86. Content and construct validity. Concurrent, discriminant, and predictive validity for some scales.
Advantages/Disadvantages This is a well-established and highly utilized self-report instrument. It requires 20-40 minute administration time, although a shortened version is available. Questions have been raised by recent scholars about the psychometric properties.




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