Strategies to promote local and regional food systems benefit from a baseline understanding of existing agricultural activity and its role within the regional economy. To encourage growth or changes in regional food systems, it is important to understand what is being produced, where and how it is being sold, and the potential economic impacts of shifting production and marketing channels. This study provides an estimate of the economic contribution of on-farm agriculture to the Maricopa County economy, as well as an estimate of the regional economic contribution of agricultural activity taking place within the Gila River Indian Community. It includes an overview of commodities produced, their direct sales effects, and an estimate of multiplier effects within the regional economy. Additionally, information on farm attributes, food versus non-food agricultural production, and existing data on local foods activity is provided within the larger context of agriculture as a whole in the region.