Students will learn the major environmental factors affecting plant growth and development and will understand interactions between plants and their microenvironments, including light penetration and CO2/H2O diffusion. Students will learn energy and mass balance of leaves and canopy and correlate these phenomena with plant productivity and related plant physiological mechanisms. Lectures cover critical controlled environment issues and practices of plant production in greenhouse, plant production factory, tissue culture vessels and post-harvest storage, with an introduction to the current research status in these areas. This course will be offered in spring of even years. Graduate-level requirements include a research paper on a specific topic within plant physiology under controlled environment. The paper should be a critical review of the current literature on the topic chosen.