Plant Image
Grapevine Canyon - Sue Smith

Yavapai County Native & Naturalized Plants

Viola canadensis - Canadian white violet

Other Common Names: Canada violet
Plant Form: Forb or Subshrub

Family: Violaceae

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Grapevine Canyon
Sue Smith
Grapevine Canyon
Sue Smith
Plant - spring
Grapevine Canyon
Sue Smith
Young plant - spring
Grapevine Canyon
Sue Smith
Forb Plant Description

Origin: Native   Life Cycle: Perennial
General Desc: One of the few "stalked" violets; flowers rise from a stalk that originates from a leaf attachment, rather than the more typical basal flower stalk arrangement of most violets. One of the few violets that has fragrance.
Identification notes: Plants with stems arising in clusters from vertical rootstocks or creeping rhizomes; herbage hairy to very hairy; basal leaves ovate to somewhat heart-shaped; petals white, lower 3 with a yellow throat, lateral petals have a tuft of hairs at their base.
Height: 3 to 14 inches


Habitat Description: Wet areas of sandy, rich, or rocky soils, along streams or creeks and shaded slopes in coniferous or aspen forests,
Plant Communities: Riparian
Elevation: 5400 - 11500 feet

Flower Characteristics

Color: White     Shape: Irregular not in clusters     Tubular: N     Flowering Period: Apr - Sep
Description: Flowers bilaterally symmetric with 2 upper petals, 2 lateral petals, and a broader lower petal, 3/4 to 1 inch wide, often tinged pink with age, sit on a slender purplish flower stalk above the leaves.

Leaf and Stem Characteristics

Leaf Color: Green     Leaf Type: Simple     Leaf Shape: Triangular     Leaf Margin: Toothed     Leaf Attachment: Basal and alternate     Leaves Clasp: N
Hairs: Stems     Spines: N
Leaf Description: Leaves are heart-shaped, 1 to 3 inches wide, with pointed tips and bluntly toothed margins, on long purplish stalks.

Fruit and Seed Characteristics

Fruit Type: Capsule
Fruit Notes: Many-seeded, ellipsoid to globular capsule that opens lengthwise from top.
Seed Notes: Ovoid, large amounts of oily endosperm, and often an appendage.

  Arizona Cooperative Extension
Yavapai County
840 Rodeo Dr #C
Prescott, AZ 86305
(928) 445-6590
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Last Updated: Nov 21, 2021
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