Economic Impact Analysis

Economic Impact Analysis (EIA) Program

The AREC Economic Impact Analysis (EIA) program provides applied research and economic analysis addressing economic development issues around Arizona. We work serving the needs of Cooperative Extension and its stakeholders such as Arizona agricultural and agribusiness industries, natural resource users and organizations, and regional economic groups to provide specialized analysis and targeted information.

Research and outreach activities in this Extension program area include the following:

  • Economic contribution and impact analysis using input-output methods
  • Regional economic analysis
  • Agriculture and agribusiness industry and value chain analysis
  • Natural resource related economic analysis
  • Enterprise-level models and impact analysis
  • Primary research via surveys, interviews, and focus groups
  • Cost-benefit and avoided cost analyses
  • Other applied research

Topical specialties include:

  • Agriculture (crop, livestock) and agribusiness
  • Water and natural resource economics
  • Regional economics
  • Agricultural value chains and trade
  • Outdoor recreation and tourism


Comparing Applied Analysis We Provide

Analysis Type What it Does What it Cannot Do
Economic Impact Analysis Estimates net new economic activity generated by an economic shock, including multiplier effects Does not evaluate cost-effectiveness, efficacy, or other merits of a policy, program, etc.
Economic Contribution Analysis Estimates existing economic activity supported by an existing industry/program/etc., including activity supported through multiplier effects Does not estimate opportunity costs associated with spending, labor, and resources used by industry or program
Economic Base Analysis Quantifies relative concentration of a particular industry in a geographic area; a way of measuring importance of industry to regional economy Does not provide insights into industry within the context of the local economy beyond a measure of concentration
Cost-Benefit Analysis Provides comparison of the costs (direct and indirect) associated with a particular policy/program/project/etc. and its benefits, measured in terms of monetary value Best applied to projects, programs, investments, etc. Cannot be applied to industries; Not all costs and benefits can be easily quantified in terms of monetary value
Avoided Cost Analysis Estimates costs avoided by a particular enterprise, individual, etc. due to a an intervention, program, policy, etc. Not a cost-benefit analysis or assessment of efficacy or efficiency of a program or intervention
Value Chain Analysis Provides a map of interdependent industries involved in delivering goods and services to end-users, sometimes quantifies economic activity by value chain component Most helpful within the context of a larger industry analysis or contribution analysis


Our Team

Ashley K. Bickel

Ashley K. Bickel is an Economic Impact Analyst at the University of Arizona's Cooperative Extension and Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics. Her work focuses on collaborating with Extension agents and industry representatives across the state of Arizona to conduct economic impact and contribution studies. Her area of expertise includes working with the IMPLAN input-output modeling software as well as the statistical programs, SAS and STATA.

Dari Duval

Dari Duval is an Economic Impact Analyst for University of Arizona Cooperative Extension in the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics. As part of the EIA team, her work includes conducting industry analysis for stakeholders statewide and for Cooperative Extension programs and projects. She specializes in input-output analysis, regional economics, and applications for agricultural and natural resource topics.

George Frisvold

Dr. Frisvold is Professor and Extension Specialist in University of Arizona’s Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics. Dr. Frisvold joined the faculty at The University of Arizona in 1997. He has been a visiting scholar at the National Institute of Rural Development in Hyderabad, India, a lecturer at The Johns Hopkins University, and Chief of the Resource and Environmental Policy Branch of USDA's Economic Research Service. His research interests include domestic and international environmental policy, as well as the causes and consequences of technological change in agriculture. In 1995-96, Dr. Frisvold served on the Senior staff of the President's Council of Economic Advisers with responsibility for agricultural, natural resource, and international trade issues. He is a past co-editor of the Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics.


Contact the EIA Team

For more information or if interested in partnering with the EIA Team, please contact us at or by phone at 520-621-6265.



Contribution of On-Farm Agriculture and Agribusiness to the Pinal County Economy
—Ashley Kerna Bickel, Dari Duval, George Frisvold
Arizona's Agribusiness System: Contributions to the State Economy
—Ashley Kerna Bickel, Dari Duval, George Frisvold
Arizona Leafy Greens: Economic Contributions of the Industry Cluster
—Ashley Kerna, Dari Duval, George Frisvold
The Contribution of Small Grains Production to Arizona‘s Economy
—Dari Duval, Ashley Kerna, George Frisvold, Chris Avery
Contribution of the Golf Industry to the Arizona Economy in 2014
—Dari Duval, Ashley Kerna, George Frisvold, Kai Umera, Runfeng Li
The Contribution of Arizona’s Vegetable and Melon Industry Cluster to the State Economy
—Ashley Kerna, Dari Duval, George Frisvold, Azhar Uddin
The Contribution of the Beef Industry to the Arizona Economy
—Ashley Kerna, George Frisvold, Russell Tronstad and Trent Teegerstrom


For more detailed information on economic impact analyses (EIAs), please contact:

Ashley K. Bickel
Economic Impact Analyst
(520) 621-6265

Dari Duval
Economic Impact Analyst
(520) 621-9741

George Frisvold
Professor and Extension Specialist
(520) 621-6269

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