Areas of Expertise
Positive youth development / adolescent development
Sexual orientation and gender diversity: identity development and experience with minority stress
Latinx youth: identity development and experience with minority stress
Intersections of multiple forms of minority stress
Sociocultural and contextual influences on health and development
Advanced statistical analyses (latent modeling, structural equation modeling)
Framed by the tenets of the minority stress model, intersectionality, and positive youth development, my research identifies malleable family and other salient contextual (i.e., school, community) features that contribute to and mitigate health disparities experienced by marginalized adolescents in the United States. Largely, my research has examined these relationships with explicit attention to the minority-specific stressors of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination that contribute to the disparate rates of negative outcomes experienced by sexual and gender diverse adolescents and Latinx youth, and the protective factors (e.g., family support, acceptance) that buffer these associations.
1 Risk/protection factors related to suicide behaviors among LGBTQ youth
This project uses a large data set from several schools and community organizations to examine the role of developmental assets in reducing risk for suicide behaviors among sexual minority and gender diverse youth. Funded by the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (2015-2017).
2 Identity, family, and school experiences of Latin@ LGBTQ youth
This project examines how intersecting experiences related to race-ethnicity and sexual orientation contribute to well-being and academic achievement among over 400 Latin@ LGBTQ-identified youth. Data were collected online using social media recruitment via the Gay Lesbian and Straight Education Network.
3 Pilot study: Trans youth & family Cognitively-Based Compassion Training intervention
This project examines the feasibility and effectiveness of a cognitively-based compassion training with trans youth and their families (aimed at recruiting 8-10). Funded by the Institute for LGBT Studies at UA.
4 Pilot study: Effectiveness of an arts-based suicide prevention program for SGM Youth
This project examines the feasibility and effectiveness of an arts-based suicide prevention program for sexual and gender minority youth. Funded by the University of Arizona Faculty Seed Grant and Alliance Foundation.
5 Athletes’ perceptions of the climate for LGBTQ athletes in collegiate sports and athlete ally development
This project explores perceptions of the climate for LGBTQ athletes and athlete ally identity among 159 college-student athletes at NCAA Division I schools.
6 Risk/protection factors related to school experiences of urban youth
This project examines several risk and protective factors related to school achievement for students in an urban school in Northeastern Ohio. The school has one of the lowest graduation rates in the state of Ohio and has experienced tremendous demographic shifts in the past 15 years (e.g., the percentage of Latin@ students has increased by 40%). Funded by the Martha Holden Jennings Foundation.
7 College 2016 election study
The purpose of this study is to examine college students’ stress hormone profiles before, during, and after the 2016 U.S. presidential election. We hope to understand how individuals’ political affiliations, beliefs, thoughts, and attitudes relate to key election issues, and in turn, predict differential physiological responses.
Adolescent Development (undergraduate) - FSHD 377
Structural Equation Modeling (graduate) - FSHD 607a
Intermediate Quantitative Analysis (graduate) - FSHD 537b
LGBT Families and Individuals Across the Lifespan (graduate) - FSHD 604
PUBLICATIONS & PRESENTATIONS (Google Scholar profile):
** Graduate student collaborator.
*** Undergraduate student collaborator.
- Perez-Brena, N. J., Rivas-Drake, D., Toomey, R. B., & Umana-Taylor, A. J. (in press). Contributions of the Integrative Model for the Study of Developmental Competencies in Minority Children: What have we learned about adaptive culture? American Psychologist.
- ***Shulla, R. M., & Toomey, R. B. (in press). Sex differences in behavioral and psychological expression of grief during adolescence. A meta-analysis. Journal of Adolescence.
- Toomey, R. B., McGeorge, C. R., & Carlson, T. S. (in press). Profiles of LGBTQ ally engagement in college athletics. Journal of LGBT Youth.
- Toomey, R. B., McGeorge, C. R., & Carlson, T. S. (in press). Athletes’ perceptions of the climate for sexual and gender minority athletes and their intervention in bias. Journal of the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education.
- Romero, A. J., Piña-Watson, B., & Toomey, R. B. (2018). When is bicultural stress associated with loss of hope and depressive symptoms? Variations by ethnic identity status among Mexican descent youth. Journal of Latina/o Psychology, 6(1), 49-63. doi:10.1037/lat0000078
- **Shramko, M., Toomey, R. B., & Anhalt, K. (2018). Profiles of minority stressors and identity centrality among sexual minority Latinx youth. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/ort0000298
- Toomey, R. B., Ryan, C., Diaz, R. M., & Russell, S. T. (2018). Coping with sexual orientation-related minority stress. Journal of Homosexuality, 65, 484-500. doi:10.1080/00918369.2017.1321888
- **Bravo, D., Toomey, R. B., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Updegraff, K. A., & Jahromi, L. B. (2017). Growth trajectories of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ educational expectations. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 41, 165-174. doi:10.1177/0165025415616199
- Casper, D. M., Card, N. A., Bauman, S., & Toomey, R. B. (2017). Overt and relational aggression participant role behavior: Measurement and relations with sociometric status and depression. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 27, 661-673. doi: 10.1111/jora.12306
- Toomey, R. B., Huynh, V. W., **Jones, S. K., ***Lee, S., & **Revels-Macalinao, M. (2017). Sexual minority youth of color: A content analysis and critical review of the literature. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health, 21(1), 3-31. doi: 10.1080/19359705.2016.1217499
- **Bravo, D., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Toomey, R. B., Updegraff, K. A., & Jahromi, L. B. (2016). Risky behaviors and educational attainment among Mexican-origin mothers: The role of acculturative stress and the educational aspiration-expectation gap. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 52, 13-26. doi:10.1016/j.ijntrel.2016.02.003
- **Derlan, C. L., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Toomey, R. B., Jahromi, L. B, & Updegraff, K. A. (2016). Measuring cultural socialization attitudes and behaviors of Mexican-origin mothers with young children: A longitudinal investigation. Family Relations, 65, 477-489. doi:10.1111/fare.12196
- McGuire, J. K., Kuvalanka, K. A., Catalpa, J. M., & Toomey, R. B. (2016). Transfamily theory: How the presence of trans* family members informs gender development in families. Journal of Family Theory and Review, 8, 60-73. doi:10.1111/jftr.12125
- Russell, S. T., Day, J. K., Ioverno, S., & Toomey, R. B. (2016). Are school policies focused on sexual orientation and gender identity associated with less bullying? Teachers’ perspectives. Journal of School Psychology, 54(1), 29-38. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2015.10.005
- Storlie, C. A., & Toomey, R. B. (2016). Professional school counselor perceptions of systemic barriers affecting Latino students: Implications for socially just preparation and practice. The Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 8(2). doi:10.7729/82.1156
- Toomey, R. B., & Anhalt, K. (2016). Mindfulness as a coping strategy for bias-based school victimization among Latina/o sexual minority youth. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 3(4), 432-441.
- Toomey, R. B., Anhalt, K., & **Shramko, M. (2016). An examination of the validity and reliability of a measure of sexual orientation identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation. Self & Identity, 15, 488-504. doi:10.1080/15298868.2016.1157516
- Toomey, R. B., McGeorge, C. R., & Carlson, T. S. (2016). LGBTQ ally development and engagement in sports: A mixed-methods study. Journal of Intercollegiate Sports, 9(2), 247-267. doi:10.1123/jis.2015-0049
- *Toomey, R. B., & Russell, S. T. (2016). The role of sexual orientation in school victimization: A meta-analysis. Youth & Society, 48(2), 176-201. doi: 10.1177/0044118X13483778
- Toomey, R. B., & Storlie, C. A. (2016). School counselors’ intervention in bias-related incidents among Latino students. Journal of School Violence, 15(3), 343-364. doi: 10.180/15388220.2015.1049354
- **Derlan, C. L., Umaña -Taylor, A. J., Toomey, R. B., Updegraff, K. A., & Jahromi, L. B. (2015). Person-environment fit: Everyday conflict and coparenting conflict in Mexican-origin teen mother families. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 21(1), 136-145. doi:10.1037/a0037069
- McGeorge, C. R., Carlson, T. S., & Toomey, R. B. (2015a). An exploration of family therapists’ beliefs about the ethics of conversion therapy: The influence of negative beliefs and clinical competence with LGB clients. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 41, 42-56. doi: 10.1111/jmft.12040
- McGeorge, C. R., Carlson, T. S., & Toomey, R. B. (2015b). Assessing lesbian, gay, and bisexual affirmative training in couple and family therapy: Establishing the validity of the faculty version of the affirmative training inventory. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 41, 57-71. doi: 10.1111/jmft.12054
- Toomey, R. B., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Updegraff, K. A., & Jahromi, L. B. (2015). Trajectories of problem behavior among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers: An examination of risk enhancing and reducing factors. Journal of Latina/o Psychology, 3(1), 1-10. doi: 10.1037/lat0000028
- Toomey, R. B., Updegraff, K. A., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Jahromi, L. B. (2015). Gender role attitudes across the transition to adolescent motherhood in Mexican-origin families. Family Process, 54, 247-262. doi: 10.1111/famp.12127
- Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Tynes, B. M., Toomey, R. B., Williams, D. R., & Mitchell, K. (2015). Latino adolescents’ perceived discrimination in online and off-line settings: An examination of cultural risk and protective factors. Developmental Psychology, 51, 87-100. doi: 10.1037/a0038432
- Carlson, T. S., McGeorge, C. R., & Toomey, R. B. (2014). Establishing the validity of the spirituality in clinical training scale: Measuring the level of integration of spirituality and religion in family therapy training. Contemporary Family Therapy, 36, 310-325. doi: 10.1007/s10591-013-9278-y
- **Derlan, C. L., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Toomey, R. B., Updegraff, K. A., Jahromi, L. B., & Flores, L. I. (2014). Perceived discrimination and ethnic affirmation: Anglo culture orientation as a moderator among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Child Development, 85, 1357-1365. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12191
- Gonzales, N. A., **Wong, J. J., Toomey, R. B., Millsap, R., Dumka, L. E., & Mauricio, A. M. (2014). School engagement mediates long term prevention effects for Mexican American adolescents. Prevention Science, 15, 929-939. doi: 10.1007/s11121-013-0454-y
- Jahromi, L. B., Guimond, A. B., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Updegraff, K. A., & Toomey, R. B. (2014). Family context, Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ parenting knowledge, and children’s subsequent developmental outcomes. Child Development, 85, 593-609. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12160
- McGeorge, C. R., Carlson, T. S., & Toomey, R. B. (2014). The intersection of spirituality, religion, sexual orientation, and gender identity in family therapy training: An exploration of students’ beliefs and practices. Contemporary Family Therapy, 36, 497-506. doi: 10.1007/s10591-014-9312-8
- Russell, S. T., *Toomey, R. B., Ryan, C., & Diaz, R. M. (2014). Being out at school: The implications for school victimization and young adult adjustment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84, 635-643. doi: 10.1037/ort0000037
- *Toomey, R. B., Card, N. A., & Casper, D. M. (2014). Peers’ perceptions of adolescent gender nonconformity: Associations with overt and relational peer victimization and aggression. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 34, 463-485. doi: 10.1177/0272431613495446
- Toomey, R. B., Umaña -Taylor, A. J., Williams, D. R., **Harvey-Mendoza, E., Updegraff, K., & Jahromi, L. (2014). The impact of state-level immigration policy on health and service utilization of Mexican-origin teen mothers and their mother-figures. American Journal of Public Health, 104(S1), S28-S34.
- Bauman, S., Toomey, R. B., & Walker. J. (2013). Associations among bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide in high school students. Journal of Adolescence, 36, 341-350. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.12.001
- Brittian, A. S., Toomey, R. B., Gonzales, N. A., & Dumka, L. E. (2013). Perceived discrimination, coping strategies, and Mexican American adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors: Examining the moderating role of gender and cultural orientation. Applied Developmental Science, 17(1), 4-19. doi: 10.1080/10888691.2013.748417
- Carlson, T. S., McGeorge, C. R., & Toomey, R. B. (2013). Establishing the validity of the affirmative training inventory: Assessing the relationship between lesbian, gay, and bisexual affirmative training and students’ clinical competence. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 39, 209-222. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2012.00286.x
- McGeorge, C. R., Carlson, T. S., & Toomey, R. B. (2013). Establishing the validity of the feminist couple therapy scale: Measuring therapists’ use of feminist practices with heterosexual couples. Journal of Couple and Relationship Therapy, 12, 3-21. doi: 10.1080/15332691.2013.749760
- Russell, S. T., & *Toomey, R. B. (2013). Risk and protective factors for suicidal thoughts among sexual minority youth: Evidence from the Add Health study. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health, 17, 132-149. doi: 10.1080/19359705.2012.753398
- *Toomey, R. B., & Russell, S. T. (2013a). An initial investigation of sexual minority youth involvement in school-based extracurricular activities. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23, 304-318. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2012.00830.x
- *Toomey, R. B., & Russell, S. T. (2013b). Gay-straight alliances, social justice involvement, and school victimization of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer youth: Implications for school well-being and future civic engagement. Youth & Society, 45, 500-522. doi: 10.1177/0044118X11422546
- Toomey, R. B., Umaña -Taylor, A. J., Jahromi, L. B., & Updegraff, K. A. (2013). Measuring social support from mother-figures in the transition from pregnancy to parenthood among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 35, 195-213. doi: 10.1177/0739986312470636
- Toomey, R. B., Umaña -Taylor, A. J., Updegraff, K. A., & Jahromi, L. B. (2013). Ethnic identity development and ethnic discrimination: Examining associations with well-being over time for Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Journal of Adolescence, 36, 825-833. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.06.004
- Russell, S. T., & *Toomey, R. B. (2012). Men’s sexual orientation and suicide: Evidence for U.S. adolescent-specific risk. Social Science and Medicine, 74, 523-529. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.07.038
- *Toomey, R. B., McGuire, J. K., & Russell, S. T. (2012). Heteronormativity, school climates, and safety for gender nonconforming students. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 187-196. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.03.001
- Toomey, R. B., & Umaña-Taylor, A. J. (2012). The role of ethnic identity on self-esteem for ethnic minority youth: A brief review. The Prevention Researcher, 19(2), 13-16.
- Russell, S. T., Ryan, C., *Toomey, R. B., Diaz, R., & Sanchez, J. (2011). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescent school victimization: Implications for young adult adjustment. Journal of School Health, 81, 223-230. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00583.x
- *Toomey, R. B., Ryan, C., Diaz, R., & Russell, S. T. (2011). High school gay-straight alliances (GSAs) and young adult well-being: An examination of GSA presence, participation, and effectiveness. Applied Developmental Science, 15, 175-185. doi: 10.1080/10888691.2011.607378
- McGuire, J. K., Anderson, C. R., *Toomey, R. B., & Russell, S. T. (2010). School climate for transgender youth: A mixed method investigation of student experiences and school responses. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 1175-1188. doi: 10.1007/s10964-010-9540-7
- *Toomey, R. B., Ryan, C., Diaz, R., Card, N. A., & Russell, S. T. (2010). Gender nonconforming lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: School victimization and young adult psychosocial adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1580-1589. doi: 10.1037/a0020705
- Reprinted: *Toomey, R. B., Ryan, C., Diaz, R., Card, N. A., & Russell, S. T. (2013). Gender nonconforming lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: School victimization and young adult psychosocial adjustment. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1(S), 71-80. doi: 10.1037/2329-0382.1.S.71
- *Toomey, R. B., & Richardson, R. A. (2009). Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth. Journal of Homosexuality, 56, 849-860. doi: 10.1080/00918360903187812